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The diseases of economic importance caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and virus like organisms. National Research Centre for Citrus, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, PO Box 464, Amravati Road, NAGPUR 440 010, Maharashtra, INDIA Fax:91-712-2500813 Phone:91-712-2500249; 2500518 E-mail [email protected] Section two covers major diseases caused by fungi, including the ever important apple scab and powdery mildew. It is subject to severe stem pitting resulting in a reduction of fruit size. Phytoplasma and nematodes of each crop are covered, describing their history, distribution, losses incurred, symptoms, latest diagnostic tools, epidemiology and integrated applied management approaches including cultural, chemical, genetic resources, use of bio-control agents being adopted world-wide. The next section covers diseases of the roots and crown with particular emphasis on Phytophthora root, crown, and collar rot. In addition, the distribution of CTV in grapefruit is not uniform.

Rampant eruption of new races of banana pathogens and their rapid resis- tant development to new fungicides has posed a threat to banana industry in Africa that produces around 30 million tons of bananas yearly, which is mostly consumed locally. Symptoms are a severe reduction in size of the inoculated seedling plus severe chlorosis and yellowing of the foliage. Management of perennial fruit crops requires further close monitoring especially for the management of diseases that can affect production significantly and subsequently the post-harvest life of these highly perishable commodities. They also theorized that the distribution of the mild protec- tive isolate is important and it should have the ability to quickly invade all new flushes.